The total of 7,799 samples was analyzed for amphetamines. The concentrations ranged from 40 to 572,865 pg/mg (median, 100-3,687) for all amphetamine analytes.
- Amphetamine and methamphetamine were present in 14% of the samples,
- 22 samples were positive for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (0.3%),
- 7 for methylenedioxyamphetamine (0.09%)
- and 4 for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (0.05%).
- Cocaine and related analytes were found in 5% samples (7,787 total), and the concentration range was 20-265,063 pg/mg (median 84-1,768).
- Opioids overall ranged from 40 to 118,229 pg/mg (median 123-830).
- The most prevalent opioid was oxycodone (15.1%) and hydrocodone (11.4%)
- compared with 1.0-3.6% for the others, including morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and oxymorphone.
- Carboxy-Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol positivity rate was 18.1% (0.04-262 pg/mg, median 6.41).
- Out of 3,039 samples, 756 were positive (24.9%) for ethyl glucuronide (20-3,754 pg/mg, median 88).
- Other drugs found in nails included barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ketamine, meperidine, tramadol, zolpidem, propoxyphene, naltrexone and buprenorphine.
Nail analyses have become a reliable way of determining the long-term use and abuse of drugs. Extraction techniques are simple and produce accurate and precise results. Sensitive analytical instrumentation, mainly LC-MS-MS, allows for detection of femtogram (10(-15) g) quantities of substances in nails. Samples were from a high-risk population, therefore the extraordinary positivity rate was observed.
By: Shu I1, Jones J1, Jones M1, Lewis D1, Negrusz A2.
- 1United States Drug Testing Laboratories, Inc., 1700 South Mount Prospect Road, Des Plaines, IL 60017, USA.
- 2United States Drug Testing Laboratories, Inc., 1700 South Mount Prospect Road, Des Plaines, IL 60017, USA